The history of Istanbul dates back 8500 years with the Neolithic age settlement, which came to light with the excavations of the Yenikapı Theodosius Port, and a new era has been opened about the cultural, artistic, geological change and urban archeology that the city has undergone. Undoubtedly, the most striking feature of Istanbul’s history is that it was the capital of three universal empires such as the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman Empires. The Roman Empire expanded very much in the 4th century AD; Due to its strategic location, Istanbul was chosen by Emperor Constantine as the new capital city for Rome. The city was reorganized in more than 6 years, the walls were expanded, temples, official buildings, palaces, baths and hippodrome were built. With the great ceremonies held in 330, it was officially announced that the city was the capital of the Roman Empire.The city, which was known as the names of Second Rome and New Rome at the beginning of the near age, was later called “Byzantion” and Constantinople in the late ages. Among the people, the name of the city has been mentioned as “Police” throughout the history. It is understood that the emperors after the Great Constantine continued to beautify the city. The first churches in the city were also built after Constantine. Due to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century, Istanbul has been the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine) for many years. The city was rebuilt in the Byzantine period was extended again by walls. Today, 6492 m. long city walls, Emperor Il. It was built by Theodosius. In the city, whose population exceeded half a million in the 6th century,Another golden age was experienced under the Emperor Justinyen. Hagia Sophia, which has reached today, is a work of this period. Latin sovereignty, which was a black period between 726-842, started with the invasion of the city in 1204 of the 4th Crusade, and all the churches and monasteries and monuments have been plundered for years. The city, whose administration was regained by the Byzantines in 1261, could not regain its former wealth. Istanbul was conquered by the Turks in 1453 after a 53-day siege. The large sized balls used by Fatih Sultan Mehmet for the first time in the history of war are an important reason for the Istanbul walls to be exceeded. The capital of the Ottoman Empire was moved here, the population of the city was increased with immigrants brought from various parts of the country, and the development works of the empty and devastated city were started.The freedom of religion and social rights were given to the old people of the city and they were ensured to continue their lives. A century after the conquest, Turkish Art left its mark on the city, and domes and minarets dominated the city skyline.
Since the Ottoman Sultans were the Caliphs since the 16th century, Istanbul has been the center of the entire Islamic world. Under the rule of the Sultans, the city was completely reconstructed and took on a fascinating atmosphere. Sultan Palace, located in the old acropolis, has dominated the unique view of the Bosphorus and the Golden Horn. After the frequent contacts with the Western world since the 19th century, mosques and palaces began to be built on the shores of the Bosphorus, in the style of European architecture. Many palaces built in a short time are also symbols of the last period of the Ottoman Empire. At the beginning of the 20th century, Istanbul witnessed the end of the Ottoman Empire. While the Ottoman Empire was falling apart and internal and external enemies were fighting for their own share; Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, with the support of the Turkish Nation, together with his comrades,It has started a struggle to save the land of the country. Following the War of Independence won by the will of the nation; Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923.
In this process, moving the capital to Ankara did not change the importance of Istanbul. This unique city continues to be one of the most important culture-tourism-art-finance and trade capitals in the world with its fascinating appearance.